c y b o r g m a n i f e s t o 2 . 0
:: t e c h n o l o g i e s
:: s p a c e o f f l o w s
Manuel Castells in his second volume "The Rise of the Network Society" from the series "The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture", points to a dialectical interaction between technology and society very much like Bolter and Grusin do in their book "Remediation": "Technology does not determine society: it embodies it. But neither does society determine technological innovation: it uses it."
He argues that the present phase of late-capitalism has become possible because of the latest developments in information technology, and vice-versa that capitalism seeks to enhance to uses of these new technologies. Castells calls the social space created by the new technologies the 'space of flows' from which exclusion means basically societal death. These new technologies thus effect pervasively all levels of production in different sectors as well as the whole of society. Castells argues, much like Chela Sandoval in her ideas about differential movement, that the introduction of information technology provides for a highly dynamic characteristic of the new global society.
"The emergence of a new technological paradigm organized around new, more powerful, and more flexible information technologies makes it possible for information itself to become the product of the production process. To be more precise: the products of new information technology industries are information processing devices or information processing itself. New information technologies, by transforming the processes of information processing, act upon all domains of human activity, and make it possible to establish endless connections between different domains, as well as between elements and agents of such activities." (Castells 1996, p. 67).
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