William Gibson, author of the Sprawl Trilogy, the Bridge Trilogy, and other science-fiction novels is referred to as the father of cyberpunk. His Sprawl Trilogy: Neuromancer, Count Zero, and Mona Lisa Overdrive, portray a dystopian (contrary to Gaian) future in which artificial intelligence is trying to break free from the constraints of cyberspace and inhabit some other universe. Cyberpunk literature often centers on these ideas and has a focus on information technology and its impact on self and society.
Also coined by William Gibson, cyberspace refers to the landscapes of computer networks and perhaps even a parallel universe made up of internet data. Case, from William Gibson's Neuromancer, is a drug addict and calls himself a cyberspace hacker but is really a cyberspace junkie. When he gets himself in trouble and looses his ability to "jack in" he goes insane and will go to great lengths to re-gain his access.