The wikipedia article on our hero, Evariste Galois. I also used a few other Wikipedia articles, but since they are free domain, and if you are interested you'll probably be roped into finding them anyway, I won't list them here.
A collection of resources related to Galois' life, including letters, manuscripts, and homeworks written by him.
An historical essay on the history of the Ecole Polytechnique and the French school system.
Rigatelli, Toti. Evariste Galois. Vita Mathematica Series. Trans. John Denton. Boston: Birkhauser, 1996.
A fairly throrough biography of the mathematician.