More definitions of Critcal Thinking by Others (2)
These are some definitions of Critical Thinking according to the people who write the textbooks or article on the subject. This is for references for the readers who like to explore further on this topic. The content is quoted from a website.
Uses of critical thinking:
"underlies reading, writing, speaking, and listening . . . the basic elements of communication"
"plays an important part in social change . . . institutions in any society - courts, governments, schools, businesses - are the products of a certain way of thinking."
"helps us uncover bias and prejudice."
"is a path to freedom form half-truths and deceptions."
"the willingness to change one point of view as we continue to examine and re-examine ideas that may seem obvious. Such thinking takes time and the willingness to say three subversive words: I don't know."
Critical thinkers: distinguish between fact and opinion; ask questions; make detailed observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence.
Ellis, D. Becoming a Master Student, 1997.
Attributes of a critical thinker:
Ferrett, S. Peak Performance (1997).
"Critical thinking is best understood as the ability of thinkers to take charge of their own thinking. This requires that they develop sound criteria and standards for analyzing and assessing their own thinking and routinely use those criteria and standards to improve its quality."
Elder, L. and Paul, R. "Critical Thinking: Why we must transform our teaching." Journal of Developmental Education 18:1, Fall 1994, 34-35.
Definitions of Critical Reading:
"(1) the process of making judgments in reading: evaluating relevancy and adequacy of what is read . . . " (2) an act of reading in which a questioning attitude, logical analysis, and inference are used to judge the worth of what is read according to an established standard . . . Among the identified skills of critical reading involved in making judgments are those having to do with the author's intent or purpose; with the accuracy, logic, reliability and authenticity of writing; and with the literary forms, components, and devices identified through literary analysis."
Harris and Hodges. (1981). A Dictionary of Reading and Related Terms, 74.
Critical evaluation is "the process of arriving at a judgment about the value or impact of a text by examining its quality in terms of form, style, and rhetorical features, the readability of the author and the consistency between ideas it presents and the reader's experience, including . . . internal evaluation . . . and external evaluation . . ."
Harris and Hodges. (1995). The Literacy Dictionary, 48.
Critical readers are:
Schumm, J. S. and Post, S. A. (1997). Executive Learning, 282.