|Data - Information - Knowledge
Data is the raw material of information. It is the product of research and discovery. A single piece of data has no meaning unless the context is understood. Data needs to be transformed to information.
Knowledge is a multifaceted concept with multilayered meaning. The history of philosophy since the classical Greek period can be regarded as never ending search for the meaning of knowledge. [Resource]. The traditional epistemology adopts a definition of knowledge as "Justified True Belief". In theory of knowledge creation, knowledge is seen as a dynamic human process of justifying personal beliefs as part of an aspiration for the "truth". Machlup(1983) see information is a flow of messages of meanings which might add to, restructure of change knowledge.
Dretske(1981) offers more useful definitions. He said that, " Information is that commodity capable of yielding knowledge, and what information a signal carries is what we can learn from it. Knowledge is identified with information-produced (or sustained) belief, but the information a person receives is relative to what he or she already knows about the possibilities at the source. "
Knowledge is created and organized by the very flow of information, anchored on the commitment and beliefs of its holder. There are two dimensions of knowledge classified by Polanyi Micheal.
Click here to view diagram that shows transformation of data, information and knowledge.
discussion on epistemology here is based on such classical accoutns as Platos Theaetetus and Phaedo, Descartes Discourse on Method, Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Humes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and Kants Critique of Pure Reason. For interpretation of these workds, see Hospers(1967), Dancy (1985), Hallis(1985), Moser and Nat(1987), and Winograd and Flores(1986)
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