Orality represents the values of social integration into the folk community, while print represents the values of individualism and critical autonomy.

The effects of mass media, in a postindustrial culture, are associated with oral culture -- as secondary orality -- and one's attitude to the electronic paradigm will tend to be determined by the attitude to these values.

Humanists condemn electronic orality because they assume that a free society depends on the subject of individualism as it is defined in the Enlightenment tradition (9).