What does it mean to be human? Lora Schwartz's "Cyborg and Human" expands on this issue. Can artificial intelligence reach self-awareness? Matthew Hudson's "Ghost in the Black Box" expands upon self-awareness Do machines mate biologically the same as humans or is it the asexual reproduction of other organisms or neither? Ghost in the Shell asks all these questions and more. These same questions have plagued other works as well. Some that come to mind are Blade Runner, Neuromancer, and Bubblegum Crisis. Nueromancer makes self-awareness apparent with the neuromancer itself. It acts like a human yet it is artificial. Case the main character understands this. In interacting with neuromancer, Case can see a blend of machine and human as he tries to decide what neuromancer is. When neuromancer and wintermute merge, the second question about mating is tackled. In Ghost in the Shell, the Puppet Master and Motoko merge. From it starts a new being neither Puppet Master nor Motoko. Was this reproduction sexual or not? Human minds being molded as part of the cyborg brings a new concept that only Ghost in the Shell has introduced. Motoko and Bateau's brain cells have been implanted within the cyborg bodies. The line between human and machine becomes blurred even more. Bubblegum Crisis also does this with Prissy and her friend. Adam Mazer sheds light on prissy and the androids associated with her. Ahref:Mazer.htmlUntil the characters are introduced the audience suspects that the characters are just normal people. Of course the androids in Bubblegum Crisis comes from the replicant concept in Blade Runner. In Blade Runner the replicants are very identical to humans. The replicants are distinguishable to humans by an emotional test. The replicant does not have feelings yet most show more emotiion in the movie than Dekard the replicant hunter. With self awareness a possibility, the final question for the cyborg or the artificial intelligence presents the attainability of a self-awareness. The Puppet Master represents a self aware entity through his Frankensteinish birth.


Ghost-Hacking is a double-edge sword in the world of Ghost in the Shell. The user on one hand can manipulate the ghost of that person but the hacker can have trauma while ghost-driving and lose memories. Where does the tramatic effect stim from?

Can the machine evolve into a being of self awareness, having control of its own thoughts and actions?

By putting the human brain ito the machine, Ghost in the Shell has made the insertion that one can preserve the human soul by preserving the brain. Can the human soul be so easily replicated?

Human beings are slowly becoming more cyborg in nature. Is Ghost in the Shell's prophetic views a warning?