Artificial Liver

Lester D. Stone, EL 65, The Cyborg Self, Brown University, 2006

In the 1960s chief research scientist Manfred Carlyle coined the term cyborg. In the 1950's, Japanese doctors, M.Mito, Y Nose and M. Hori conducted artificial liver research. The year 1956, specifically birthed the term Artificial liver. In 1956, the first model of a biological artificial liver used a live dog;s liver incorpated in a cross-hemodialyzer. This liver placed in an experimental animal with portocaval encephalopathy, became the first hybrid liver in the world. Biological artificial liver means hybrid liver.The first human case in hybrid livers started in October 1958. The first laboratory-made biological artificial liver placed in a 20-year-old male patient in a hepatic coma due to cirrhosis, composed of four units of parabiotic cross-hemodialyzers connected to the hepatic circulation of a live dog. Hepatic reactors of penetrated ion exchange resin columns connected to four units of of parabiotic cross hemodialyzers. The reactors provided ammonium absorption and acid-base balance. This first application took 55 minutes and resulted in a recovery from a Grade 4 coma. This event resulted in a great success. This patient represents an early example of the individual cyborg. A human who uses some sort of prostheses to stay alive.

History of the Cyborg: Index

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Last modified 30 December 2006